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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 76-77

Biomarkers in uterine leiomyomas and their clinical significance

Department of Pathology, Rural Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Saifai Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication26-May-2017

Correspondence Address:
Seema Dayal
Department of Pathology, Rural Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Saifai Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/TJOG.TJOG_46_16

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How to cite this article:
Dayal S. Biomarkers in uterine leiomyomas and their clinical significance. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2017;34:76-7

How to cite this URL:
Dayal S. Biomarkers in uterine leiomyomas and their clinical significance. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jan 25];34:76-7. Available from: https://www.tjogonline.com/text.asp?2017/34/1/76/207090

Leiomyomas are the most common benign smooth muscle uterine neoplasm of the reproductive age group.[1] They are steroid-dependent tumors. Leiomyomas are diagnosed by clinical examination, ultrasonography, and histopathology examination of hysterectomy specimens or excised myomas.[2] Biomarkers are biological compounds that can be obtained from serum or other easily accessible tissues. They are the reflection of physiology or pathology.[3] Biomarkers which are raised in leiomyoma are prolactin, serum total protein, S. HLA-G, VEGF, Ghrelin, lactate dehydrogense A, hypermethylated death-associated protein kinase, CA-125, hematopoietic growth factors, human epididymis protein 4, proteomics, and gonadal hormones.

Prolactin is a protein hormone involved in various mammalian physiologic actions such as lactogenesis. It is also expressed in other tissues including uterine leiomyomas.[4] It is raised in uterine leiomyomas.

Serum protein is lower in patients with leiomyoma probably because these patients are predisposed to abnormal uterine bleed and menorrhagia.[2]

S human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is an antigen of the immune system which is also expressed in uterus. It is elevated in melanoma, ovarian, and breast carcinoma. Basta et al.[5] demonstrated higher levels of HLA-G in patients with leiomyoma.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hematopoietic growth factor – VEGF is an angiogenic peptide for the growth of tumors. Chen et al.[6] evaluated raised serum VEGF in women with uterine leiomyoma. Similarly, hematopoietic growth factor, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating (G-CSF), are raised in endometrial carcinomas and leiomyomas.

Ghrelin – It is secreted by the stomach. Markowska [7] found raised levels of ghrelin in women with leiomyoma.

Lactate dehydrogenase A – It is involved in anerobic glycolysis, and its levels are raised in ovarian cancers and leiomyoma.[8]

CA-125 is raised in ovarian carcinoma as well as in patients with endometrial carcinoma and other benign gynecological diseases such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, adenomyosis, and uterine leiomyomas.[9]

Growth hormones – leiomyomas need hormonal milieu for their growth and maintenance as evident by molecular studies that leiomyoma exhibits more estrogen receptors than normal myometrium.[2]

  Conclusion Top

Biomarkers in leiomyoma are useful for diagnosis as well as for prognosis. There are a number of markers that are raised in leiomyoma uteri, however, ideally it should be sensitive, specific, and cost effective.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Crum CP. Body of uterus and endometrium. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fauston, editors. Robbins and cotran Pathologic basis of disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004.P1089- 90.  Back to cited text no. 1
Dayal S, Kumar A, Verma A. Clinicopathologic correlation of Leiomyoma with clinical findings and secondary changes in a Rural population of North India. Am J Clin Pathol 2014;141:275-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
Christenson RH, Duh SH. Methodological and analytic considerations for blood biomarkers. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2012;55:25-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
Myers ER, Barber MD, Gustilo-Ashby T, Couchman G, Mathchar DB, Mc Crory DC. Management of uterine leiomyoma; What do we really know? Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:8-17.  Back to cited text no. 4
Basta P, Mach P, Pitynski K, Bednarek W, Klimek M, Zietek J. Differences in blood serum levels of soluble HLA- G concentrations between the menstrual cycle phases and menopause in patients with ovarian endometriosis and uterine leiomyoma. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2009;30:91-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
Chen DC, Liu JY, Wu GJ, Ku CH, Su HY, Chen CH. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor 165 levels and uterine fibroid volume. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2005;84:317-21.  Back to cited text no. 6
Markowska A, Ziolkowska A, Nowinka K, Malendowicz LK. Elevated blood active ghrelin and normal total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in uterine leiomyomas. Eur J Gyaecol Oncol 2009;30:281-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
Koukourakis MI, Kontomanolis E, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Liberis V. Serum and tissue LDH levels in patients with breast/gynaecological cancer and benign diseases. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2009;67:162-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
Babacan A, Kizilaslan C, Gun I, Muhcu M, Mungen E, Atay V. CA 125 and other tumor markers in uterine leiomyomas and their association with lesion characteristics. Int J Clin Med 2014;7:1078-83.  Back to cited text no. 9


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