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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| May-August  | Volume 33 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 13, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Predictors of successful induction of labour at a tertiary obstetric service in Southwest Nigeria
Folasade A Bello, Oriyomi O Akinyotu
May-August 2016, 33(2):143-148
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192213  
Context: Induction of labour is a useful obstetric intervention, yet it is underutilized in Africa. Recommendations for practice may reduce its unmet need. Objective: This study aims to determine labour induction success rates and identify predictors of outcome. Study Design, Setting and Patients: This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 104 women who had induction of labour at the University College Hospital, Nigeria. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes were vaginal delivery within 24 hours and caesarean delivery. Analyses were done by Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression. Results: Labour induction rate was 12.7%; most were performed on account of post-dated pregnancies and pre-labour rupture of membranes. Forty-six, (44.2%) had vaginal delivery within 24 hours whereas induction failed (i.e. caesarean delivery) in 38 (36.5%). The mean duration of the process was 12.0 ± 6.6 hours with misoprostol, 8 hours less than with oxytocin (P < 0.01). Misoprostol was significantly more likely to result in delivery within 24 hours in comparison to extra-amniotic transcervical catheter for ripening (P = 0.02, OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.2-21.1), and to oxytocin for induction (P = 0.03, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.2-36.3), respectively. Adverse effects were infrequent and comparable with either method. Conclusion: Success rate needs to be improved upon. Higher parity, later gestation and misoprostol ripening or induction are associated with successful outcomes. It is recommended that clients' experience may be improved by commencing misoprostol cervical ripening the night before induction and administering the medication orally rather than vaginally.
  1 2,598 335
Awareness and perception of preconception care among health workers in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching University, Zaria
O Adeoye Tokunbo, O Kolawole Abimbola, I Onwuhuafua Polite, O Adeoye Gbemiga
May-August 2016, 33(2):149-152
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192215  
Background: Preconception care (PCC) has been found to improve fetomaternal outcome but it is not widely practiced in Nigeria. Objective: To obtain information concerning the level of awareness, perception and practice of PCC among health workers with the view of providing recommendation for a framework for its implementation in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 280 health workers (doctors and nurses) using pretested self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires between November 2013 and January 2014. Analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Chi-square test was used to determine relationships between variables. Results: The response rate was 85.0% with 130 (54.2%) doctors and 109 (45.8%) nurses. Most (83.3%) of the respondents had heard of PCC, and 91.6% defined it correctly. Only 55 (23%) knew more than 75% of the components of PCC. The difference in knowledge of PCC between doctors and nurses and based on years of experience was statistically significant (c2 = 0.014). Only 114 (47.7%) had ever offered some form of PCC. The most common intervention was preconception folic acid administration in 33% of the respondents. The perceived obstacles to assessing PCC were poor information (88.3%), poor health seeking behaviour (68.6%) and unplanned pregnancies (60.7%). Majority 182 (76.2%) felt obstetricians should handle PCC followed by family physicians. Opportunistic delivery was cited as the best mode of delivery. Conclusion: The level of awareness of PCC is high among health workers, especially doctors. It can be offered opportunistically until full integration into the health care system. Training of health workers will improve its implementation.
  1 4,069 346
Labour outcome in patients admitted in the second stage of labour at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Michael T Maanongun, Patrick H Daru, Victor C Pam, Terrumun Z Swende, Augustine O Ojabo, Peter O Eka
May-August 2016, 33(2):165-171
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192218  
Context: Unsupervised or poorly monitored labour is associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications. Late presentation in labour is common place in this part of the world. Objective: To determine the reasons for coming in second stage of labour and compare the labour outcome with those admitted in the first stage of labour. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study conducted at the Jos University Teaching Hospital between September and November 2012. Results: Of the 617 total deliveries, 156 (25.3%) were admitted in second stage of labour. Majority of women (38.57%), (10.00%), (8.57%) stated transportation difficulties, fast progress of labour and husband not around respectively as the reason for coming in second stage of labour. Maternal complications like lower genital laceration (25.7% vs 8.6%), postpartum haemorrhage (7.1% vs 2.1%), and ruptured uterus (2.1%) were more common amongst the cases than the control. The total mean blood loss was similar in both groups. Complications of sickle cell crises, eclampsia, and anaemia including chorioamnionitis were found only among the cases. There were more spontaneous vagina deliveries amongst the cases while caesarean section and use of episiotomy were more amongst the control (P < 0.01). Instrumental delivery was similar in the two groups. Perinatal complications like fresh stillbirths (5.0%), early neonatal deaths (2.10%), birth asphyxia (5.4% vs 3.6%) and the need for admissions in special care baby unit (3.4% vs 0.7%) were more amongst the cases than the control. Conclusions: This study identified transportation problems, fast progress of labour, absence of husband at home when labour starts as major reasons for presenting in second stage of labour. Presenting in second stage of labour was associated with worse labour outcome.
  1 2,337 186
Upright or dorsal? childbirth positions among antenatal clinic attendees in Southwestern Nigeria
OO Badejoko, HM Ibrahim, IO Awowole, SB Bola-Oyebamiji, AO Ijarotimi, OM Loto
May-August 2016, 33(2):172-178
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192219  
Background: Upright childbirth positions are associated with better delivery outcomes. These positions such as kneeling and squatting were the norm for childbirth in indigenous Nigerian custom. However, westernization has largely replaced them with supine positions. Objective: This study was conducted to compare the knowledge, attitude and experience regarding childbirth positions between antenatal clinic attendees in southwest and northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A mixed methods design was employed. Quantitative data were obtained using a structured questionnaire in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife (n = 201) and Federal Medical Centre, Katsina (n = 104). Knowledge was graded as poor, fair or good whereas attitude toward each position was graded as favoured, indifferent or against. The resulting proportions were compared using Chi-square. Qualitative data were obtained through key-informant interviews. Results: Knowledge of childbirth positions was generally poor. Overall, only to women (0.6%) had good knowledge, whereas 60 (19.7%) had fair knowledge and the rest (79.7%) had poor knowledge. More women in Katsina than Ile-Ife knew the squatting position (32.7% vs. 16.4%; P < 0.001) and favoured it (25.0% vs. 7.5%; P < 0.001), whereas more Ile-Ife women knew the lithotomy position (42.3% vs. 26.9%; P = 0.01). Attitudes towards the remaining positions were comparable between them. Key-informant interviews of the midwives revealed that they were trained to conduct delivery exclusively in the supine positions. They were, however, interested in learning the use of upright positions. Conclusion: Knowledge about childbirth positions was very poor. Women in northwestern Nigeria were more aware and favorably disposed to childbirth in their customary squatting position. Training of Nigerian midwives on upright childbirth positions is recommended.
  1 1,638 156
Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus optimizes predictability of adverse pregnancy outcome
Lucius C Imoh, Obasola O Ogunkeye, Christian O Isichei, Amos A Gadzama, Chinedu C Ekwempu
May-August 2016, 33(2):185-189
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192221  
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for GDM. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) and World Health Organization's (WHO) diagnostic criteria are commonly used criteria, although clinical outcome data of diagnostic performance of these diagnostic criteria are limited. This study examines the IADPSG and WHO criteria for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study involved 130 pregnant women who underwent Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing (OGTT) during 24-32 weeks of gestation. Fasting, 1-hour and 2-hour glucose were measured. Participants were classified as GDM and non-GDM women based on the IADPSG and WHO diagnostic criteria. Five pregnancy outcomes were observed, namely, pre-eclampsia, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, birth weight ≥4.0 kg, clinical neonatal hypoglycaemia and birth asphyxia. Results: Twenty-eight participants (21.5%) had GDM by the IADPSG criteria (GDM IADPSG ) and 21 (16.2%) women had GDM by the WHO criteria (GDM WHO ). Only 15 women (11.5%) met the criteria for GDM by both criteria. The association of GDM with macrosomia was stronger in GDM WHO women [Odds ratio (OR) =13.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.4-50.6] compared to the GDM IADPSG women (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.5-18.9). Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by both the IADPSG and WHO criteria (P = 0.001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of GDM that meets both the WHO and IADPSG criteria provides stronger prediction for adverse pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that meets only WHO or IADPSG criteria.
  1 1,310 128
Reproductive desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age attending the adult HIV clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
PO Eka, IOA Ujah, J Musa, TZ Swende, G Achinge, M Maanongun
May-August 2016, 33(2):232-237
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192235  
Background: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the medical management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has modified the natural history of HIV, resulting in improvements in the quality of life and life expectancy of women living with HIV. Consequently, many HIV-positive women of reproductive age are considering the possibility of having their own biological offspring. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among HIV-positive women of reproductive age attending the adult HIV clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Equal numbers of HIV-positive women of reproductive age in serodiscordant and seroconcordant relationships, who met the selection criteria, were recruited using convenience sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire in a face-to-face interview, and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistical software (version 17) to determine their reproductive intentions using Chi-square and t-test. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the relationship between independent variables and the intentions of respondents to have children. Results: A total of 500 women were recruited for the study (250 in serodiscordant relationship and 250 in seroconcordant relationship). The overall reproductive desires and intentions were 60% and 56.4%, respectively. The reproductive intentions among those in serodiscordant and seroconcordant relationships were 63.2% and 49.6%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The reproductive intentions among the HIV- positive women in this study were high, the intentions being much higher among those in serodiscordant relationship. With a compelling intention to exercise their parenthood, there is a need for us to provide appropriate reproductive and sexual health services and support for all HIV-positive women of reproductive age.
  1 1,262 151
CASE REPORTS
Vesicovaginal fistula presenting as urogenital prolapse
CO Njoku, CU Iklaki, CI Emechebe, SB Ugwu, N Egwu, UA Agbakwuru, JE Ekabua
May-August 2016, 33(2):243-245
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192238  
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is an abnormal fistulous communication between the bladder and the vagina that allows continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vagina. It is one of the most abhorred morbidities in obstetric practice because of the profound effect on the patient's emotional well-being. Here, we present a case of VVF presenting as urogenital prolapse following an automobile accident. A large fistulous defect with complete bladder base prolapse was successfully repaired with adequate flap mobilization after two failed attempts by a surgical team. VVF should be considered in cases of urogenital prolapse especially following traumatic pelvic injuries.
  - 1,468 201
Recurrent Bartholin's gland abscess in pregnancy: An uncommon presentation
Zubaida G Abdullahi, Aminatu M Umar, Afolabi K Koledade, Bilkisu K Lawal, Tokunbo O Adeoye, Oladapo S Shittu
May-August 2016, 33(2):246-249
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192239  
Bartholin's gland cysts and abscesses are the most common cystic swelling of the vulva in women of reproductive age and are usually small in size, as the discomfort associated with it necessitates early consultations. Huge Bartholin's abscesses are uncommon and even fewer cases have been reported were among non-pregnant women. This case involved a 25-year old grandmultipara, who presented at a gestational age of 24 weeks with a huge vulval swelling measuring 14cm x 10cm, following failure of its resolution from self-medicated antibiotics. She had experienced similar but smaller vulvar enlargements in her two preceeding pregnancies that had resolved following similar medical treatment. She was treated successfully with marsupialization, without any adverse effect on the pregnancy. This case illustrates the likelihood of huge Bartholin's abscess complicating pregnancy and that there should be no hesitation to apply marsupialization in its treatment. The recurrence of the abscess in three successive pregnancies in this woman, who kept using self-prescribed antibiotics is a worrying trend that will require the education of women at various reproductive health care clinics about vulvar swellings and warn against antibiotics abuse.
  - 33,941 397
Intra-abdominal gossypiboma with feacal fistula, laparotomy, removal and drainage
Olumuyiwa A Roberts, Oludolapo O Afuwape
May-August 2016, 33(2):250-253
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192240  
Retained surgical sponge (gossypiboma) is a rare complication of abdominal surgery, however, it is the most common surgical item that is found to be retained. Whenever a gossypiboma occurs in the abdominal cavity following abdominal surgery, it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality, as well as medicolegal consequences. Risk factors for this problem include both patient care processes and working environment issues. The discovery may take months or years after the surgery was performed, and the complications at presentation also vary. This case followed an emergency caesarean section with the delivery of a live male infant, and the diagnosis was made 1 year after surgery. She presented with a 1-year history of intermittent abdominal pain, which became excruciating with accompanying discharge of pus from the abdomen shortly before presentation. She had exploratory laparotomy and developed a faecal fistula on the fourth day following the extraction of the retained abdominal pack, which was conservatively managed. She was discharged on the 19 th postoperative day to the outpatient clinic for further care.
  - 1,273 97
EDITORIAL
Primary health care and voluntary obstetricians scheme in Nigeria: For impact and change
Olusola B Fasubaa
May-August 2016, 33(2):133-134
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192210  
  - 1,045 154
INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS
Information for Authors
Professor OB Fasubaa
May-August 2016, 33(2):254-255
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192242  
  - 754 91
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria
Amina Mohammed-Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede
May-August 2016, 33(2):238-242
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192236  
Context: Effective contraceptive use is important after a caesarean or operative delivery because of the possible risks a woman may face in subsequent pregnancies. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the uptake and choices of contraception among women with previous operative delivery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital from 1 st January, 2000 to 31 st March, 2014. Family planning cards were retrieved, and relevant information was collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15. Chi-square test was used as a test of association, with significance level established at a P value of < 0.05. Results: Of the 5992 cards retrieved, 164 (2.7%) had previous operative delivery; 152 caesarean sections and 12 laparotomies for ruptured uterus. Only 17.7% initiated contraception within 6 months. More women were spacers (86.6%) rather than limiters (13.4%). Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P < 0.05), whereas breast feeding status was not (P > 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, there was no significant difference between both the groups; injectables was the most popular method chosen followed by intrauterine devices, oral contraceptive pills, and implants. Conclusion: Most women with a previous operative delivery were at risk of unwanted pregnancies because they did not initiate contraception within 6 months of their last delivery. Their preferred forms of contraception were injectables and intrauterine devices, which was not significantly different from the methods chosen by other women.
  - 1,113 97
Transfusion syndromes in monochorionic multiplets: An overview
Dominic O Osaghae, Jacob A Unuigbe
May-August 2016, 33(2):135-142
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192211  
The west Africa sub-region, notably Nigeria, records the highest twin and triplet birth rates globally. Therefore, the time has come for attention to be focused on an area of gemellology, feto-fetal transfusion syndromes in multiplets, in order to attend to what the authors consider a yet-to-be-explored major significant contributor to the overall unacceptably high fetal, perinatal and neonatal losses in the region. This review examines the genetics, embryology and pathophysiology of twinning in general to provide the background to the spectrum of clinical presentations of feto-fetal transfusion syndromes. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndromes (TTTS) are unique prenatal complications of monochorionic multiplets and manifest as twin oligohydramnios polyhydramnios sequence (TOPS), twin anaemia polyhydramnios sequence (TAPS) and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAPS). These grave complications are associated with fetal malformations and early miscarriages as well as fetal weight and haemoglobin discordances, discordant haemodynamic changes in addition to intrauterine deaths, perinatal asphyxia, cerebral palsy and brain damage. Most importantly, the management of TTTS requires highly skilled interventions, expensive equipment, rare expertise and costly treatment options that are currently not available in Nigeria and other developing countries. Moreover, these management options are unavailable in Nigeria because considerable attention of the health system is directed at the burden of high levels of maternal, perinatal, and childhood morbidity and mortality. Regardless of these overwhelming obstetric and paediatric challenges, there is still urgent need to develop feto-maternal medicine units in the country to focus attention on the management of TTTS because of high twinning rate and attending fetal, perinatal and neonatal wastages. Furthermore, Nigeria is now witnessing an increased incidence of twin births from the rapidly developing assisted reproductive therapy centres in the country. All these provide justification for devoting attention to this unique area of perinatal care that will, on balance, be robustly cost effective. Hence, this review of transfusion syndromes in monochorionic multiplets aims to sensitize health workers and researchers in Nigeria, particularly perinatologists and feto-maternal physicians, neonatal paediatricians, as well as policy makers and other stakeholders, on the need to focus attention on the problem.
  - 1,545 156
Determination of coagulopathy complicating severe preeclampsia and eclampsia with platelet count in a University Hospital, South-South, Nigeria
OO Awolola, NO Enaruna
May-August 2016, 33(2):179-184
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192220  
Background: Pre-eclampsia is a multisystemic disorder complicating pregnancy. It is associated with a significant burden on maternal and perinatal health, especially when complicated by coagulation abnormalities. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the level of thrombocytopenia that predicts a risk of abnormalities of coagulation indices in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Materials and Methods: Haemostatic factors including platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and plasma fibrinogen were done for a cohort of 90 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Their demographic and laboratory data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 and GraphPad InStat 3 software. Results: Twenty-one (23.3%) of the 90 patients had eclampsia. Mean age was 29.78 ± 4.7 years, parity was 2.54 ± 1.6 and gestational age was 36.14 ± 2.9 weeks. Thrombocytopenia was found in 13 (14.4%) patients, whereas biochemical coagulopathy was found in 6 (6.7%) patients. Thrombocytopenia was 43% more likely with eclampsia than severe preeclampsia (47.6% vs 4.3, P = 0.001). Abnormal PT, APTT and plasma fibrinogen were more likely with platelet count below 80000 cell/µl (P = 0.046, P = 0.014 and P = 0.001, respectively). Eclampsia complicated with thrombocytopenia was associated with the most severe biochemical coagulopathy. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia frequently complicates eclampsia more than severe preeclampsia at platelet count levels below 80000 cell/µl. This level is discriminatory for biochemical coagulopathy, and it should prompt coagulation studies and warrant clinical vigilance.
  - 1,829 240
Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C coinfection among HIV-positive pregnant women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Olubukola A Adesina, Joshua O Akinyemi, Babatunde O Ogunbosi, Obaro S Michael, Olutosin A Awolude, Isaac F Adewole
May-August 2016, 33(2):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192216  
Aim: This study estimated the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in a population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women, compared women who were positive or negative for HCV and described risk factors associated with HCV infection. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, case control study was conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan among 1821 women. Twenty-six (1.65%) women were HCV positive, 139 (8.83%) were HBsAg positive and 1407 (89.33%) were negative for both viruses. Three patients (0.19%) were positive for both viruses. These patients, i.e., the HBsAg positive women and 246 women with no result, for either virus were excluded from analysis. Data from 1433 pregnant women is presented. Chi square test and student's t-test examined associations, with level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Overall, the mean age of the HCV positive women was lower (26.77 ± 6.53 vs. 28. 95 years ± 5.33; P = 0.04), most women had attained primary (28.49%) or secondary (42.44%) education, over 90% were married and heterosexual sex (88.67%) was the most likely risk for HIV. HCV prevalence was higher in the lower age groups (5% in the ≤ 19 years group, P = 0.021). The coinfected had more unmarried women (3.6% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.164) and more likely to indicate blood transfusion as a risk factor for HIV (6.2%; P = 0.34). Conclusion: Only age showed any significant association with HCV infection. Lack of identifiable risk factors sum up challenges for developing screening strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. Further studies will identify factors facilitating HCV transmission in the region.
  - 1,363 157
Triplet pregnancies in a southeastern Nigerian Hospital: Before the artefacts set in
Esike OU Chidi, Egbuks O Sylvester, Ekaette Ekop, Okali K Uka, Umeora UJ Odidika, Twomey E Dierdre
May-August 2016, 33(2):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192217  
Background: Triplet pregnancies, though uncommon, occur with much higher maternal discomfort, morbidities, mortalities and perinatal morbidity and mortality when compared to singleton pregnancies. It is a well-known fact that the incidence of triplet pregnancies differ in different regions of the world and even in different parts of the same country and that they are increasing around the world due to assisted reproductive technologies. The incidence and outcome of naturally occurring triplet pregnancies has never been evaluated in our center for us to know and have a baseline to compare any increase brought about by assisted reproduction along with other factors, and hence, we conducted this study. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the cases of triplet pregnancies delivered in Mile Four Maternity Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi state in southeast Nigeria from January 1995 to December 2005. The cases were from the antenatal, labour ward and theater registers, and relevant information were retrieved and analysed. Results: There were 22 triplet pregnancies over the 10-year period under review and 23126 deliveries, giving an incidence of triplet pregnancy of 0.1% or 1 triplet pregnancy in 1051 deliveries. Many of the women 10 (45.5%) were in the 31-35 years age group, and half (11) were grand multiparas. Half of the gestational ages at delivery 11 (50%) were 35-37 weeks. The major antenatal complication was preterm labour in 5 or 22.7% of the women or half (50%) of the complications that occurred in the women. Two or 9.1% of the women had preeclampsia, 1 each or 4.5% had prolonged rupture of membrane, polyhydramnious and anaemia. Majority of the women, 18 (81.8%) were delivered vaginally and 4 (18.2%) by caesarean section. The babies had a weight range of 0.6-3.4 kg, with an average weight of 1.73 kg. Sixty babies (90.9%) were born alive and 6 (9.1%) were dead, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 91 babies per 1000. Of the alive babies, 42 (63.6%) had good Apgar score of 8-10 in 1 minute and 7 (19.6%) Apgar score of 1-4. Conclusion: Triplet pregnancies are rare and high risk pregnancies that are associated with many fetal and maternal complications that are of great importance to the parents, care giver, and the health system. Obstetricians must find ways to optimize the outcome of these pregnancies, especially now that the incidence is bound to increase due to assisted reproductive technologies.
  - 1,188 82
Expectant mothers' perception of prenatal sonography in a South-Eastern population in Nigeria
AC Ugwu, HC Elugwu, OA Onyegbule
May-August 2016, 33(2):190-195
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192222  
Background: Prenatal sonography is very important for quality patient management and effective service delivery in diagnostic radiology during the antenatal period. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the perception of pregnant women to prenatal sonography and to investigate the factors affecting maternal satisfaction to prenatal sonography in some tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that involved 150 patients. It was conducted by administering semi-structured questionnaires. The questionnaire contained a total of 17 questions consisting of 16 close-ended questions and 1 open-ended question. The respondents were pregnant women who presented for obstetric sonography in Federal Teaching Hospitals and Federal Medical Centers in south-eastern Nigeria. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency tables and percentages. Results: There was a high indication of clinical use of obstetric ultrasound such as the health and well-being of the foetus (35.3%), foetal age determination, and the expected date of delivery (24.7%). Most respondents (84.6%) perceived prenatal sonography as being necessary, and 66.7% of the patients considered the result of obstetric sonography to be reliable. Majority of the respondents (88.7%) considered the services rendered during their sonographic scan to be satisfactory. Conclusion: Most of the women perceived prenatal sonography as necessary and reliable. The services rendered during sonography were also considered satisfactory by most women; however, most pregnant women did not know about diagnostic ultrasound safety during the prenatal period.
  - 2,154 236
Awareness and utilization of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in a Nigerian University
Bilkisu Isa, Sanusi M Ibrahim, AA Kullima, Babagana Bako
May-August 2016, 33(2):196-200
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192224  
Background: Many women are not aware of emergency contraception, which limits its use. Because increased risk of unwanted pregnancy and subsequent unsafe abortion have been well-documented, research on the knowledge and usage of emergency contraception is appropriate. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 450 female undergraduate students of a University in northeast Nigeria from November to December 2014. Results: The age range of the respondents was 19-30 years, with a mean age of 21.4 ± 2.1 years. Most of them, 308 (68.4), were between the ages of 20 and 24 years. Majority of the students, 321 (71.3%), were single. Overall, 295 (65.5%) students were aware of emergency contraception, and 211 (71.5%) had utilized them. Among those who had utilized them, 174 (82.4%) were singles. The most common source of initial information about emergency contraception was health personnel, 148 (50.1%), followed by friends, 107 (36.3%). School, 11 (3.7%), and parents, 4 (1.4%), were the least utilized sources of information. Information from health personnel, news media and schools were the major influences of emergency contraceptive utilization. Levonorgestrel only pills (Postinor-2 R ) and combined pills (Yuzpe) were the most commonly utilized emergency contraception by 91 (43.1%) and 85 (40.3%) of the respondents, respectively. Conclusion: There was good level of awareness and utilization of emergency contraception among female undergraduates. However, there is a need to educate the parents, students and staff or counselors at the family clinic section of the university health clinic on its importance to improve the awareness of the students.
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Experiences in the use of misoprostol in the management of first trimester missed abortion in a low resource setting
MA Abdul, HO Palmer, B Aminu, H Ismail, A Kadas
May-August 2016, 33(2):201-204
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192225  
Background: The use of misoprostol in the management of first trimester abortion is an evolving clinical practice in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To determine the effectiveness and acceptability of misoprostol in the evacuation of the uterus in first trimester missed abortion. Study Design: This was a non-randomized trial. Setting: This study was conducted in the Gynecologic Unit, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Consented consecutive patients with first trimester missed abortion were recruited in the study. Each patient was given sublingual misoprostol 600 µg to be repeated after 6 hours if abortion process was not initiated. They were followed-up after two weeks and offered contraceptive counseling. However, if active vaginal bleeding persisted, patients were reviewed after 1 week, scanned and offered surgical evacuation (manual vacuum aspiration) on confirmation of residual products of conception. Telephone review was conducted for patients who defaulted follow-up. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. P value was considered significant at a < 0.05 at 95% CI. Results: Sixty-one patients with missed abortion were managed between 1 st January and December 2013 with a mean age, parity and gestational age of 27.6 ± 5.6 years, 3.6 ± 2.3 and 7.6 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively. Fifty-six patients (92%) achieved complete evacuation. Mean interval between the first dose of misoprostol and abortion was 5.1 ± 2.2 hours and mean duration of vaginal bleeding was 5.9 ± 1.6 days (range: 3-14 days). Side effects were minor mainly nausea/vomiting, and all the patients with complete evacuation showed satisfaction with the method and preferred it to surgical evacuation. Conclusion: Misoprostol is very effective in the management of first trimester missed abortion in our setting and should be the treatment method of first choice.
  - 1,696 163
Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in a Tertiary Hospital: A 4 year review
Attah R Avidime, Ibrahim Saidu, Zakari Muhammad, Abdulrahman Aisha, Shuaibu SD Adavuruku
May-August 2016, 33(2):205-208
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192226  
Objective: To determine various indications for laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in Aminu Kano Teaching, hospital (AKTH), Kano. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted at the (AKTH, which involved all the patients who had laparoscopy and or hysteroscopy from January 2011 to December 2014 (4 year). Records of patients who had laparoscopy or hysteroscopy in AKTH within the study period were retrieved from the operation record book; their case files were retrieved, studied and recorded in a proforma. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: The total number of patients who had diagnostic laparoscopy within the 4-year study period was 221, but only 197 files were retrieved, giving a retrieval rate of 89.1%. The total number of patients who had diagnostic hysteroscopy was 28, but only 23 case files were retrieved, giving a retrieval rate of 82.1%. Five patients underwent both laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The mean age and standard deviation of patients who had laparoscopy was 28.7 ± 5.8 years. The mean age and standard deviation of patients who had hysteroscopy was 32.3 ± 5.9 years. The most frequent indication for laparoscopy was for primary infertility 89 (45.2%), followed by secondary infertility 78 (39.6%). Asherman's syndrome was the most common indication for hysteroscopy accounting for 52.1% of the procedure. Conclusion: Infertility is the most common indication for laparoscopy in this centre whereas Asherman's syndrome is the leading indication for hysteroscopy. Nearly all the procedures were diagnostic endoscopy.
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Gestational trophoblastic disease in Abuth Zaria, Nigeria: A 5-year review
Abimbola O Kolawole, John K Nwajagu, Adekunle O Oguntayo, Marliya S Zayyan, Sunday Adewuyi
May-August 2016, 33(2):209-215
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192228  
Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) includes a spectrum of diseases (tumor or tumor-like conditions) characterised by aberrant growth and development of the trophoblasts that may continue even beyond the end of pregnancy. It encompasses the benign trophoblastic disease (complete and partial moles), and the malignant trophoblastic diseases including the invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens), choriocarcinoma, and Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor (PSTT). This study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment options and outcomes of GTD in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria. A five-year retrospective study of patients with GTD managed at ABUTH, North-west Nigeria, from 1 st January 2008 to 31 st December, 2012 was undertaken. Data of all cases of GTD in the hospital over the 5 year period were obtained. The gynaecology ward and labour ward registers also provided information on the total number of gynaecological admissions and deliveries respectively. The data processing and analysis were carried out using the SPSS software version 16. The data obtained were expressed in percentages, means, and standard deviations. During the period of study there were 8,138 deliveries and 2,453 gynaecological admissions. There were 59 cases of GTD with 41 having choriocarcinoma, 18 molar pregnancies and no case of invasive mole or PSTT. Out of the 41 case folders retrieved, 23 were choriocarcinoma and 18 of molar pregnancies. The prevalence of GTD was 7.2 per 1000 deliveries (0.72% or 1 in 138 deliveries) and constituted 2.4% of gynaecological admissions. Hydatidiform mole (HM) occurred in 1 in 452 deliveries and choriocarcinoma occurred in 1 in 198 deliveries. Ages ranged from 19-49 years with mean of 32.5+ 5.0 years. Most (66.7%) cases of HM were 19-29years while 60.9% of choriocarcinoma cases were 30-39years. Majority of cases were multiparous. The antecedent events predating choriocarcinoma were Hydatidiform mole (31.7%), abortions (29.3%) and 2.4% followed term pregnancy. History of amenorrhea was present in all cases while vaginal bleeding occurred in 97.6%, pallor (87.8%), hyperemesis gravidarum (48.8%) and 4.9% came in shock. Consequently, common complications reported were haemorrhage (90.2%), anemia (87.8%) and shock (12.2%). Pregnancy test was positive in 90.2% of cases and serum beta hCG was done in 24.4% with more than half having a level >12,000miu/ml. All patients had pelvic ultrasound scan and snowstorm appearance occurred in 41% of benign GTD cases. Histology was used to confirm 56.1% cases of choriocarcinoma and 43.9% of molar gestation. Most (94.4%) of HM had suction evacuation while 95.6% of choriocarcinoma cases had chemotherapy, one case (2.4%) had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy. Contraception was used in 78% and common methods were male condom (41.5%) and 36.6% used combined oral contraceptive pills. Less than half (43.9%) had follow up for 6 months and 9.8% were seen for more than a year. Eight patients had subsequent pregnancies and there was one death in the series giving a case fatality of 2.4%. Gestational trophoblastic disease is a significant source of maternal morbidity with increased risk of mortality from complications if not detected early and treated promptly.
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Non-pregnancy related gynaecological causes of death in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital
Boniface U Ago, Ezukwa Omoronyia, Thomas U Agan, Ogban Omoronyia, Godwin Ebughe
May-August 2016, 33(2):216-219
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192229  
Background: Most gynaecological causes of death are related to pregnancy such as ectopic pregnancy, unsafe abortion, septic incomplete abortion, and gestational trophoblastic diseases. Hence, it was necessary to review the non-pregnancy related causes of gynaecological deaths in our centre. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to review gynaecological deaths due to non-pregnancy related causes among women in our centre at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH). Materials and Methods: This was a 5-year retrospective review of case notes of women who died in the gynaecological ward of UCTH. The demographic profile of the women, the diagnosis and the cause of death were extracted for analysis. All those whose diagnoses were pregnancy related were excluded. Results: There were 38 gynaecological deaths, which were not pregnancy related. Of these, ovarian cancer (19) and cervical cancer (11) constituted 30 cases or 78.9% of causes of death. Endometrial cancer (3), uterovaginal prolapse (3), uterine leiomyosarcoma (1), and vulvovaginal cancer (1) constituted 8 cases or 21.1% of deaths. No deaths were recorded from uterine fibroids, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, pelvic inflammatory disease, etc., Conclusion: Cancers constitute the majority of causes of gynaecological deaths in women who are not pregnant. This emphasises the need for cancer prevention, early diagnosis and effective treatment.
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Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post-menopausal women at a Primary Care Clinic in Nigeria
Ajayi O Ikeoluwapo, Ogunbode M Adetola, Adeniji-Sofoluwe T Adenike, Mosuro A Olushola, Ladipo MA Modupe, Oluwasola O Abideen, Afolabi B Nathaniel, Obajimi O Millicent
May-August 2016, 33(2):220-227
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192232  
Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival. Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. Study Design: A cross-sectional comparative study design was used and questionnaires were administered to 400 adult women at a tertiary health centre in Nigeria. The data was analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17; the level of significance set at alpha = 0.05. Results: There was significant association between pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer with P = 0.010. Majority of the respondents with a positive family history of breast cancer were menopausal (P = 0.010). There was a statistically significant association between menopausal status and ever consuming alcohol-based herbal concoctions (P = 0.010) and in those whose partners smoked cigarettes (P = 0.001). Majority of respondents were not currently on any form of contraceptives. Parity, breastfeeding and use of hormonal contraceptives were all statistically significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Almost all the women in our study, 97%, had never had a mammogram. There was a significant association between pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer (P = 0.010). Conclusion: With increasing incidence of breast cancer worldwide and late presentation in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality, effective screening for risk factors will go a long way in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.
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Uptake of post-abortion contraception among women who had manual vacuum aspiration at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri: A 5-year review
OA Onyegbule, CC Onumajuru, NA Ododo, EE Idih, PC Onyegbule
May-August 2016, 33(2):228-231
DOI:10.4103/0189-5117.192234  
Background: Unexpected or unplanned pregnancy poses a major public health challenge in women of reproductive age, especially in low resource countries. Post-abortion contraception is one of the key methods of reducing maternal mortality globally. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the uptake of contraception among women who received post-abortion care following spontaneous or induced abortion at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Materials and Methods: This study was a 5-year retrospective study that involved 480 women who received post-abortion care from January 1 st 2009 to December 31 st 2013 in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Results: The overall uptake of contraception among the study population was 79.8%. This was found to be 78.7% among nulliparous women whereas an uptake of 80.9% was seen among parous women. The age range was from 15 to 46 years with a mean age of 28.5 ± 3.5 years. Women aged between 20 and 39 years accounted for 94% of the study population. While 77.9% accepted to use the barrier method, 20.2% did not accept any method of contraception. Incomplete abortion contributed to 81.3% of the total cases. Conclusion: The uptake of contraception was high at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. It was found to be higher with the parous women than nulliparous women. Most of the women were between 20 and 39 years and were highly sexually active; therefore, reinforcing the importance of contraception from time to time among this age group will help reduce the incidence of unplanned/unwanted pregnancies, and thus, the morbidities and mortality associated with abortion.
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