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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 167-171

Predictors of location of rape: A survey of victim's location in Gombe state, North-East Nigeria


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, Tudun Wada, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, Tudun Wada, Nigeria

Date of Submission19-Jul-2019
Date of Acceptance02-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication14-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Christopher H Laima
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, Tudun Wada
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/TJOG.TJOG_74_19

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  Abstract 


Aims: To determine the predictors of rape location among victims in Gombe.
Settings and Design: Cross-sectional retrospective.
Methods and Material: Cases of alleged rape that presented at a secondary health facility from August 2016-July 2018 were retrieved.
Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 20.
Results: The majority of cases were between the ages of 5–14 years (66.1%). Up to 26% of the victims were males. For 65.7% of the cases, the perpetrators were not known to the victim. The perpetrator's residence or office was the most commonplace of rape occurrence (49.5%). More victims (60.7%) who were less than 5 were raped in the perpetrator's home/office, compared to 43.6% of those who were between 15–24 years. Also, 50% of those with tertiary educational qualifications were raped in their homes compared to 10% of those with primary educational qualifications. Rape was carried out in uncompleted building/bush for perpetrators who were known to the victim compared to 6.3% of those who the victims did not know. There are a higher odds of rape carried out in the perpetrator's or victim's home among those who are familiar with the perpetrator compared to those who are not familiar to the perpetrator (odds ratio (OR): 0.36; confidence interval (CI): 0.200–0.656). The odds of rape occurring by a known person is 3.4 times more likely to occur in the perpetrator's house/office compared to it occurring in an uncompleted building or bush (P value 0.007 with a CI of 1.396–8.562).
Conclusions: It is recommended that children should be placed in schools to minimize child labor and the public should be made aware of the possibility of rape by known persons in lonely places and at home.

Keywords: Determinants; location; rape.


How to cite this article:
Laima CH, Mohammed A, Hembah-Hilekaan SK, Abubakar JD. Predictors of location of rape: A survey of victim's location in Gombe state, North-East Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2020;37:167-71

How to cite this URL:
Laima CH, Mohammed A, Hembah-Hilekaan SK, Abubakar JD. Predictors of location of rape: A survey of victim's location in Gombe state, North-East Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 21];37:167-71. Available from: http://www.tjogonline.com/text.asp?2020/37/1/167/292013




  Introduction Top


The attention of the world has over the last few years been drawn to a rising trend of rape and sexual assault globally.[1],[2] This ugly occurrence constitutes a gross violation of the human rights of the victims with severe consequences.[3],[4],[5],[6]

The location of rape is very important in determining measures that can be put in place to minimize the menace.[7],[8],[9],[10] This study looks at determinants of the location of rape among victims who presented at a secondary healthcare facility in Gombe, North-East Nigeria.


  Subjects and Methods Top


This was a questionnaire and secondary data analysis conducted at the Special Gender-Based Violence Unit of the Specialist Hospital Gombe. Information and case records of victims were obtained from the records department, accident and emergency Unit and the gynecological emergency unit. A total of 277 case notes of victims who alleged rape were retrospectively reviewed for a period of 2 years (August 2016 to July 2018) Information was also obtained using phones and through home visits of the victims. A semi-structured open and closed-ended interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtained information such as socio-demographic data, location of the assault, number of perpetrators, relationship of the victim and perpetrator, type of injury sustained (if any), the interval between incident and reporting. Information obtained was entered unto a data sheet and transferred to software for analysis. Data obtained were processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 version. Data were presented using percentages, Chi-square, and odds ratio (OR) with the determination of associations between variables where application. A 95% confidence interval was used and a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Gombe State Ministry of Health Ethical Committee and permission to access case records and registers was obtained from the management of the State Specialist Hospital Gombe while a signed consent was obtained from each victim before the questionnaire was administered to them.

Inclusion criteria: anybody reporting to the hospital for rape irrespective of gender, tribe, race or age. Exclusion criteria: incomplete data, refusal to take part, refusal to sign consent.


  Results Top


The majority of the study population were between the ages of 5–14 years, unmarried and Muslims (66.1%, 95.7%, and 85.2% respectively). Also, 48% and 58% of the study population had no education and were Hausa/Fulani, respectively. In addition, up to 26% of the victims were males [Table 1].
Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of rape victims

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[Table 1]: Socio-demographic characteristics of rape victims

[Table 2]: Sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators
Table 2: Sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators

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About 88.4% of the perpetrators of rape were between the ages of 16–40. In 65.7% of the cases, the perpetrators were not familiar or known to the victims, while in 84% of cases, only one perpetrator was involved. The perpetrator's residence or office was the most commonplace of rape occurrence(49.5%). It was statistically significant p-value 0.001.

[Table 3]: Factors that determine the place of rape
Table 3: Factors that determine of place of rape

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More victims (60.7%) who were less than 5 were raped in the perpetrator's home or office compared to 43.6% of those who were between 15-24 years. Also, 50% of those with tertiary educational qualifications were raped in their homes compared to 10% of those with primary educational qualifications. Rape was carried out in uncompleted building/bush by the perpetrators who were known to the victim prior to occurrence compared to 6.3% of those who the victims did not know prior to the rape. All of these findings were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

[Table 4]: Predictors of place of perpetrating rape Odds ratio
Table 4: Predictors of place of perpetrating rape

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There is a higher OR of rape being carried out in the culprit or victim's home among those who are familiar with the perpetrator compared to those who were not familiar with the perpetrator (OR 0.36; CI 0.200–0.656). This finding was statistically significant (P value).

[Table 5]: Determinants of knowledge of rape perpetrator
Table 5: Determinants of knowledge of rape perpetrator before incidence

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More individuals (75%) between the ages of 25–34 years knew their perpetrators before the incidence compared to 53% of those less than 5 years. In addition, over 72% of respondents who knew their perpetrators prior to the incident reported the incident within 3 days of occurrence and this finding was statistically significant. Other variables that were statistically significant were time of occurrence, place of occurrence, and number of perpetrators. However, there was no statistically significant association between educational qualification, tribe, and knowledge of perpetrators.

[Table 6]: Predictors of rape being perpetrated by individuals known to the victim
Table 6: Predictors of rape being perpetrated by individuals known to the victim

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The odds of rape occurring by a known person to the victim is 3.4 times more likely in the perpetrator's house/office compared to an uncompleted building or bush. This finding is statistically significant (P-value 0.007 with a CI of 1.396–8.562). Although other findings were not statistically significant, there are higher odds of rape to be perpetrated by only one person when known to the victim and 1.8 times more odds of rape to be perpetrated by a known person among Tangale/Waja tribe compared to other tribes.


  Discussion Top


The age group of the victims in this study is similar to findings in Jos and Enugu.[11],[12],[13] This could be because younger individuals including children are more vulnerable to rape. In addition, there is a higher likelihood of reporting rape among younger victims.[11] The predominance of the particular tribe maybe because it is the major tribe in the study area. Furthermore, the finding on the educational status of the rape victims is similar to the study conducted in Swaziland,[14] this could be because of the increased risk of social problems and increased vulnerability of out of school children, who are engaged in child labor thereby increasing their contact with older individuals.

Furthermore, the findings of knowledge of the perpetrators are similar to studies conducted in Germany and Swaziland.[13],[14] The study also found out that rape was more likely to occur around the perpetrator's office or house, with the victims mostly being familiar with the perpetrators, similar to findings from similar studies.[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17] A plausible explanation for these findings could also be related to the increased vulnerability of out of school children.


  Conclusions Top


Rape is a common presentation in our setting and affects mostly children irrespective of the sex. Children under the age of 5 years are mostly assaulted in the perpetrator's office or shop while older persons were assaulted mostly in their homes. Those raped in the perpetrator's office did not usually have prior knowledge of the perpetrators compared to those raped at home.

It is recommended that children should be placed in schools to minimize child labor, which increases the likelihood of rape.

Acknowledgement

We want to acknowledge the Medical Director of State Specialist Hospital Gombe and all the staff of the Accident and Emergency unit/Special Gender Based Unit of the Hospital for support during the study.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient (s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Mac Donald R. Time to talk about rape. BJM 2000;321:1034-5. http://dx.org/10.1136 ibmj. 321.7268.1034.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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United Nations Population Fund. (UNFPA). State of the world population 2019. The unfinished business – the pursuit of right and choices for all UNFPA New York. Available from: www.unfpa.org. [Last accessed on 2019 on Jul, 12].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Campbel R, Dworkin E, Cabral G. An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's health. Trauma Violence Abuse 2009;10:225-48.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Caffo E, Belaise C. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiar Clin N Am 2003;12:493-535.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Dillion S, Hussain R, Loxton D, Rahman S. Mental and physical Health and Intimate partmer violence against women. A review of literature. Int J Family Med 2013;2013:313909. doi: 10.1155/2013/313909.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Preventing Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence against Women: Taking Action and Generating Evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Hewtt A, Fraser S. Catch and release: Preventing encounter and victim release location in serial rape events. Policing 2012;35:4,835-56.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Colombino N, Mercado CC, Levenson JL, Tharp AT, Valla LA. Preventing sexual violence: Can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy? Int J Law Psychiatry 2011;34:160-7. doi: 10.1016/J.IJLP 2011.04.002.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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DeGue S, Holf MK, Massetti GM, Matjasco JL, Tharp AT, Valk LA. Looking ahead towards community-level strategies to prevent sexual violence. J Women's Health 2012;21:1-3. doi: 10,1089/jwh. 20113263.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Daru PH, Osagie EO, Pam IC, Murtihir JT, Silas OA, Ekwempu CC. Analysis of cases of rape seen at University Teaching Hospital, Jos, North Central Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2011;14:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
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Ohayi RS, Ezugwu EC, Chigbu CO, Arinze-Onyia SU, Iyoke CA. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu state University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria. Obstet Gynecol 2015;130:10-3. https//doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo. 2015.2.017.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Breiding MJ, Reza A, Gulaid J, Blanton C, James AM, Dlamini N, et al. Rick factors associated with sexual violence towards girls in Swaziland. Bull World Health Organ 2011;89:203-10.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Peschers UM, Du-Mont J, Junda K, Pfurtner M, Dungan E, Kindermann G. Prevalence of sexual abuse women seeking gyneacologic care in Germany. Obstet Gynaecol 2003;101:103-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Riggs N, Houry D, Long G, Markovchick V, Feldhaus KM. Analysis of 1076 cases of sexual assault. Ann Emerg Med 2000;35:358-62.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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Introduction
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